(リンク元は、Toll Road #3 アメリカの有料道路 3/6)
With its high-quality Plate-to-VIN Matching service, DMVconnect™ enables Toll Authorities to turn out-of-state license plates into people, making invoicing and violation processing possible.
American Traffic Solutions Closing the DMV Gap for Out-of-State Toll Violators
Most Toll Authorities have the resources necessary to obtain owner registration information for in-state license plates. However, thousands of video tolls and toll violations go uncollected because of the limited or difficult access to out-of-state license plate owner registration information. The DMVconnect™ service closes this information gap by providing a single interface to obtain this hard-to-acquire data from out-of-state DMVs, enabling Toll Authorities to collect fines from ellusive out-of-state toll violators.
DMVconnect™ leverages ATS’ experience working with DMVs across North America as the largest US issuer of photo enforced citations. When ATS Red-Light Safety Cameras or Speed Compliance Cameras capture violating vehicles, our internal systems are able to rapidly connect with the appropriate DMV and obtain the vehicle’s registration information.
On the Public Safety side, ATS processes more than 1.2 million violations every month, which means: When it comes to working with DMVs across North America, we know what we’re doing.
Key Benefits of DMVconnect™
How DMVconnect™ Works
Step 1: When a vehicle with out-of-state license plates unlawfully or accidentally passes through a cashless toll, the Toll Authority adds the vehicle’s license plate details to an electronic file where the event assigned a unique transaction number.
Step 2: Through a secure Internet connection, the Toll Authority submits the out-of-state violating vehicle file to DMVconnect™.
Step 3: DMVconnect™ automatically converts the data file to the format required by each DMV database and submits each violation event to the appropriate DMV.
Step 4: Vehicle owner registration information is secured from the DMVs for as many violating vehicles as possible (typically, 80 percent to 90 percent).
Step 5: DMVconnect™ automatically verifies the owner registration information against a Change of Address database to ensure accuracy. Skip-tracing services also can be performed.
Step 6: The vehicle owner registration information for out-of-state violating vehicles is sent back to the Toll Authority via the secure Internet connection.
A meteorologist explains why the sky is sometimes so colorful.
freehdw.com Perfect Contrast
In simple terms, what makes a good sunset happen?
I guess it depends on how you define "good," but I'm going to assume you mean a strikingly colorful one, where the colors are spectrally pure—say, vivid orange or red—as opposed to a more muted palette.
Keep in mind that what we see with our human eyes is just a tiny part of the electromagnetic radiation that's given off by the sun. That radiation contains a wide spectrum of wavelengths, but your eyes are only sensitive to certain parts of it: the so-called visible wavelengths. Different colors are associated with different wavelengths.
astro.cornell.edu Electromagnetic spectrum
Humans see just a tiny part of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
And depending on what happened to the light before it got to you, some of those visible wavelengths don't even reach your eye. Portions of it are absorbed and filtered out in the atmosphere. So really, there's a good sunset every night; we just can't always see it from the ground.
You may have noticed this if you've ever taken off in an airplane at sunset. It might not look like anything special from the ground, just a whitish-pink sky, because you're still within the atmosphere's "boundary layer." That's where all the large particles are trapped, things like dust and pollution. But as the plane gets above the boundary layer, into cleaner air, suddenly the sunset looks very vivid. It's all a matter of perspective.
washington.edu This week’s new resources
The view looks very vivid from the high altitude
Okay, so let's talk about the typical Earthling's perspective. Why do we see more orange and red colors in the sky during sunrise and sunset than we do at other times of day?
When a beam of sunlight strikes a molecule in the atmosphere, what's called "scattering" occurs, sending some of the light's wavelengths off in different directions. This happens millions of times before that beam gets to your eyeball at sunset.
The angle through which sunlight in the atmosphere is scattered by
molecules of the constituent gases varies inversely as the fourth power
of the wavelength; hence, blue light, which is at the short wavelength end of
the visible spectrum, will be scattered much more strongly than
will the long wavelength red light. This results in the blue colour of the sky.
小さいサイズの粒子(窒素、酸素分子等 約150pm=0.15nm= 0.00015µm)
The two main molecules in air, oxygen and nitrogen, are very small compared to the wavelengths of the incoming sunlight—about a thousand times smaller. That means that they preferentially scatter the shortest wavelengths, which are the blues and purples. Basically, that's why the daytime sky is blue. The daytime sky would actually look purple to humans were it not for the fact that the sensitivity of our eyes peaks in the middle [green] part of the spectrum—that is, closer to blue than to purple.
quora.com Human Eye Spectral Sensitivity
Humans see the blue sky but Bees see the purple sky.
But at sunset, the light takes a much longer path through the atmosphere to your eye than it did at noon, when the sun was right overhead. And that is enough to make a big difference as far as our human eyes are concerned. It means that much of the blue has scattered out long before the light reaches us. The blues could be somewhere over the West Coast, leaving a disproportionate amount of oranges and reds as that beam of light hits the East Coast.
thesciencegeek.org Why is the Sky Blue?
So the same ray of sunlight is hitting people in both the Rockies and the Appalachians? Basically, the East gets the West's leftovers at sunset?
Yes, I think a lot of people don't realize that. Everything is connected. And as humans, we like to think color is concrete: "Oh, that's a blue sky," or "That's a brown table." But the colors you see depend on the light's path before it got to you, how the object you are viewing reflects that light, and what your eyes are sensitive to. Absolutes don't really exist in color perception. It's rather disquieting when really you start thinking about it!
ブログ記事 アメリカ縦横断 20131118 #38 より転載。
Do dust and air pollution make sunsets more dramatic?
No, you often hear that, but—assuming you mean typical pollution in the lower atmosphere—it's a myth. It's actually the opposite: Large particles in the lower atmosphere tend to mute and muddy the colors because they absorb more light and scatter all the wavelengths more or less equally, so you don't get that dramatic filtering effect. In areas with a lot of haze, you don't typically see the types of sunsets that are likely to appear on a wall calendar—or in, say, National Geographic.
Do the seasons affect sunsets?
You see bright ones in the fall and winter particularly, especially in the East, because the air along the path of the ray of sunlight tends to be dryer and cleaner.
I grew up in Baltimore, and this is part of why I got interested in weather. I would wonder: Why is the sunset so pretty tonight? And there weren't answers to questions like this in standard weather books, because it's more about physics than forecasting.
washington.edu Moving forward
Speaking of forecasting, what about the saying: "Red sky at night, sailor's delight; red sky in morning, sailors take warning." Any scientific truth to that?
Absolutely. Those spectrally pure colors are telling you there's a sizable swath of clear air off to your west that's likely to be over you the next day.
ブログ記事 アメリカ縦横断 20131031 #20 より転載。
So conversely, could local weather forecasters predict a pretty sunset?
Yeah, you can forecast them to a certain degree. I guess it's a question of who cares—maybe filmmakers or photographers would find that information useful, but most people just want to know if it's going to rain or not.
spc.noaa.gov The Colors of Sunset and Twilight
Why are sunsets sometimes more dramatic after a major storm?
There's often a slanting band of clouds on the back side of the departing weather system, and that can act as a sort of projection screen for the low-sun colors, better than a horizontal band would. The slant means it captures more of the orange and red light, and if the cloud is thin enough, it will reflect those colors down to you. Also, storms wash a lot of the big particles out of the air.
The Weather Network After the Storms
Is it true that by the time we see a sunset, the sun is actually already gone?
Yes, true sunset occurs a minute or so before you see the sun disappear. What you see is a kind of mirage; the light is getting bent around the horizon by the effect of refraction.
Sounds like there's a lot of science to sunsets, but it's also a very subjective experience.
Yes. Our eyes are sensitive to a very tiny part of the spectrum of the sun's wavelengths, and that's responsible for the way we see our environment. Other creatures seem able to see the ultraviolet area of the spectrum. We can only see a tiny part of what's going on.
enWiki Nectar guide
Absolutely. The more you look at things, the more you realize how unique your own experience is as a human on this planet, at this particular place and time.