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The Economics of Uniqueness: Investing in Historic City Cores and Cultural Heritage Assets for Sustainable Development (Urban Development)
2012/10
Guido Licciardi (編集), Rana Amirtahmasebi (編集)

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■Dublin, Ireland:"Talent Hub" Strategy Based on Livability of Historic City Core
*started with the establishment in 1987 of the Customs House Docks Development Authority
*not stopped just conservation its historic buildings. It has also invested in higher education institutions and revised its immigration policies and labor regulations to facilitate the inflax of foreign companies and their employees.All in all, the urban environment with good nightlife and leisure facilities, and a strong historic and cultural background.
--I firmly emphasize that we have to nurture hardware and software, humanware at the same time if you want to revitalise cities. On the other hand, governmental sectors are usually devided based on the fields like Ministry of Land, Infrastracture and Transportation and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Conservation should not regarded as the goal but the measure to make cities sustainable, in my opinion. We need to make the most of the all the resources including tangible, intangble, use and non-use ones in the city involving everybody in and around cities.
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【Chapter1 LIVABLE HISTORIC CORES AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT】
■Dublin, Ireland:"Talent Hub" Strategy Based on Livability of Historic City Core
*started with the establishment in 1987 of the Customs House Docks Development Authority
*not stopped just conservation its historic buildings. It has also invested in higher education institutions and revised its immigration policies and labor regulations to facilitate the inflax of foreign companies and their employees.All in all, the urban environment with good nightlife and leisure facilities, and a strong historic and cultural background.

【Chapter2 Investing in the Sence if Place:The Economics of Urban Upgrading Projects with a Cultural Dimention】
■an urban upgrading project with a cultural component should be designed in such a way that the private sector derives higher financial returns from the intervention than it would from a standard urban upgrading project.

【Chapter3 Heritage Economics: A Conceptual Framework】
■Economic Value
*use value of a heritage buildings: rents by commercial use and domestic dwellings/benefits that tourists enjoy as the entry price paied/their consumers' surplus,
*non use value: not observable since no market exists
=existence value=people value the existance of the heritage item even though they may not consume its services directly by themselves
=option value=people wish to preserve the option that they or others might consume the assets' services at some future time
=bequest value=people may wish to bequeash the assets to future generations
■Cultural Value
*Aesthetic value: All the environmental qualities relevant to the site and its surroundings
*Symbolic value: to interprit the community's identity and to assert its cultural personality
*Spiritual value: sence of identity both of the community and also of visitors to the site
*Social value: social stability and cohesion in the community
*Historic value: providing a connectedness with the past and revealing the origins of the present
*Authenticity value: real, not false, unique
*Scientific value: impertant for scholarly study

【Chapter4 Economic Evaluation if Cutural Heritage】
【Chapter5 Heritage Conservation and Property Value】
■Gentrification:Assisting the Positives
*Potentials for reinvestment
*Increased property ownership
*Improved public services
*Improved Businesses climate
*More renovation of vacant properties
*More adaptive reuse projects
*Expanding tax revenues
*Creation of new jobs
*Property appreciation
■Gentrification:The Negative Aspects
*Rising rents:for the payers of those rents
*Rising Taxes:for existing owners
*Potential change of community character
 ex) the goal of Shaoxing's housing program was to create a healthier living environment while keeping as many of the neighborhood residents as possible in place
*Loss of power and sence of ownership by the local resident groups
 ⇒that can have an adverse effect on community ties and structures
*Potential Conflicts between new and long-term resitdents
■Mitigation Stratergies
*Inclusionary housing policies
=The mixed-income development pattern seems to work best when between 10 and 25 percent of the units are targeted for lower income households
*Local hiring mandates
*Low-income housing ownership programs
1) households are no longer at risk of being displaced because of rising rents
2) households may experience financial benefit from the long-term appreciation of the neighborhood
*Long-term rental subsidies

【Chapter6 Governanve in Historic City Core Regeneration Projects】
【Chapter7 Unesco Wirld Heritage List, Tourism, and Economic Growth】
■why a solely tourism-based stratergy cannot "make a miracle"
*The sustained high growth stems from a country's ability to constantly enter new technologies and quickly reallocation labor in the production of these new goods, as the productivity gains from learning-by-doing are highest in the first syages of production
*Tourism industry relies on a limited set of services produced with little room for expansion and labor reallocation in order to be sustainable and inclusive

【Chapter8 Financial Mechanisms for Historic City Core Regeneration and Brownfield Redevelopment】
【Chapter9 Mapping Heritage Economics for Spatial Analysis in Historic City Cores】
■Leakages--the solution
*to redirect values to the benefits of the city, after first measuring the size of the leakages
*increasing the propensity of inhabitants to consume inside the city, reallocationg tax income, and enticing business to stay in the city

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