作者 Paul Gibbs
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida
Formerly at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, England.
Five, free-living species of deer found in the British countryside
(red, fallow, roe, sika and muntjac) were found to be susceptible
to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus after exposure
to diseased cattle. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the
roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in
the sika deer, and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer.
Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle
and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, in
oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol
during the course of the infection in deer were similar to those
recorded for sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow
and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond
28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. （後略）
Species： Sika deer
Clinical Disease: Mild/sub-clinical
Normal maximum titre of viraemia (log10 TCID50/ml): 6.0
Persistence of virus in pharynx at 28 days
(Normal titre in brackets: log10 TCID50/sample): Yes (4.0)
Normal maximum levels of virus excreted as aerosols*
( log10 TCID50/animal): 4.0 /30 minutes
* As assessed by large-volume air sampler.
Foot and Mouth Disease in Deer
All deer are susceptible to Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). In Roe and Muntjac the disease may be severe and sometimes fatal.
Wild deer are thought not to be important in the transmission of FMD but when there is a general
outbreak of the disease amongst domestic livestock restrictions will be placed on the culling ofdeer and the movement of live deer and carcasses. The degree of restriction is published widely on DEFRA, Deer Initiative and other websites, in the press and sometimes by telephone.
FMD is a notifiable disease; this guidance describes the symptoms, reporting procedures andappropriate biosecurity measures.
In deer the symptoms may be apparent only for a period of 2-20days. Deer do not usually showmany outward signs of disease such as lameness or salivation (dribbling) but roe and Muntjac may
be disinclined to move when approached closely.
Close examination of a carcass is necessary to see clinical symptoms; the most common signs are
small vesicles (raised or discoloured areas of skin) or lesions (sores) in the following places:
Mouth- tongue, gums, upper dental pad, inside lips
Feet- skin between hooves, boundary of skin and hooves especially between and behind hooves
and the bulb of the heel. Both front and rear hooves should be inspected.
The photographs below show symptoms in four species of deer, other species will be similar:
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